Play-based learning is an always-needed part of a child’s healthy development, allowing them to learn about themselves and their surroundings while practising essential growth skills. This approach helps children cultivate and nurture fundamental knowledge and abilities.
According to Procare Solutions. (2023, October 17). Stages of Play & Their Role in Child Care, it is the best way for children to actively engage with their environment, interact with others, explore the consequences of their actions, learn the rules of the physical and social worlds in a safe and fun way.
In this article, we will explore 8 types of play in child development that we focus on at UNIS Hanoi, along with definitions, examples, and how to encourage them.
What is Playful Learning?
Playful learning is an integral part of a child’s development, and it takes place in various spaces, both indoors and outdoors. It represents an ideal balance for a Kindergarten classroom, creating an environment where deeper play can flourish and significantly boost a child’s learning outcomes (“Let the Children Play”, Sahlberg, P., Doyle, W. 2019).
To maintain this balance, grade levels can structure their programmes to include loosely structured play, child-initiated play, playful environments with focused learning, and highly structured experiences. It is essential to strike a balance between unstructured play and playful learning while ensuring that students are involved in explicit skill development as they inquire into and make connections with the world around them.
Nurseries and schools are always considering how much structure to add to help students build their play skills and how to use play to build language development. These questions are vital in creating an environment that supports children’s holistic development.
The stages of play include pre-symbolic and symbolic play, as well as those mentioned in the Interactive Play Scale. These stages are crucial for understanding the progression of play skills in children.
In our setting, various types of play are represented, each contributing to different aspects of a child’s development:
Physical Play involves gross and fine motor play, as well as activities with sand and water, which are essential for physical development and sensory exploration.
Parents can promote physical play in children by providing opportunities for active play and movement. Here are some ways parents can encourage physical play:
- Outdoor Activities: Encourage children to engage in outdoor activities such as running, jumping, climbing, and playing sports. Provide access to safe outdoor spaces where children can engage in physical play.
- Play Equipment: Provide age-appropriate play equipment such as balls, jump ropes, hula hoops, and bicycles to encourage physical activity.
- Active Playtime: Schedule regular active playtime for children, allowing them to engage in activities that promote gross motor skills and coordination.
- Family Activities: Engage in physical activities as a family, such as going for walks, hikes, or bike rides together.
- Playdates: Organise playdates with other children to encourage active play and social interaction.
- Limit Screen Time: Set limits on screen time and encourage physical play as an alternative to sedentary activities.
- Positive Reinforcement: Encourage and praise children for engaging in physical play, and participate in the activities with them to make it a fun and enjoyable experience.
By providing opportunities for physical play and being actively involved in promoting an active lifestyle, parents can help children develop their physical abilities and enjoy the benefits of physical activity.
Parents can promote language play in children by engaging in activities that encourage the use and exploration of language. Here are some ways parents can promote language play:
- Storytelling: Encourage children to create and tell stories, using their imagination and language skills to express themselves.
- Word Games: Play word games such as rhyming, alliteration, and tongue twisters to make language play fun and engaging.
- Reading Aloud: Read books aloud to children and encourage them to participate by asking questions, making predictions, and discussing the story.
- Creative Writing: Provide opportunities for children to write and illustrate their own stories, poems, or journals.
- Role-Playing: Encourage dramatic play and role-playing activities that involve using language to express thoughts, emotions, and ideas.
- Songs and Nursery Rhymes: Singing songs and reciting nursery rhymes can help children develop language skills and phonological awareness.
- Language Games: Play games that involve language skills, such as “I Spy,” charades, or storytelling games.
- Conversations: Engage children in meaningful conversations, ask open-ended questions, and encourage them to express their thoughts and feelings using language.
By incorporating these activities into daily routines, parents can create an environment that promotes language play and supports the development of children’s communication skills.
Parents can promote construction play in children by providing them with access to a variety of building materials and opportunities for creative exploration. Here are some ways parents can encourage construction play:
- Provide Building Materials: Offer a variety of building materials such as blocks, LEGO sets, magnetic tiles, cardboard boxes, and other construction toys that allow children to build and create.
- Encourage Open-Ended Play: Allow children to engage in open-ended construction play where they can use their imagination to build structures without specific instructions or guidelines.
- Join in the Play: Participate in construction play with your child, offering support, encouragement, and engaging in collaborative building projects.
- Create a Designated Building Area: Set up a dedicated space for construction play where children can freely build and create without the fear of disrupting other activities.
- Celebrate Achievements: Celebrate and display the creations that children build, showing appreciation for their creativity and efforts.
- Provide Inspiration: Offer books, videos, and real-life examples of buildings and structures to inspire children’s construction projects.
- Encourage Problem-Solving: Encourage children to overcome challenges and solve problems they encounter during the construction process.
By providing a supportive environment and engaging in construction play with their children, parents can help foster creativity, problem-solving skills, and spatial awareness in their little ones.
Includes dress-up clothes, stage areas supporting group play, games with roles, and activities that support language development. Dramatic play allows children to explore social roles, emotions, and creativity.
Parents can promote dramatic play in children in several ways. Here are some strategies they can use:
- Provide Props: Offer costumes, props, and objects that encourage role-playing and creativity. These can include character costumes, stage props, and items representing different roles (such as kitchen utensils, tools, phones, etc.).
- Create a Space for Play: Establish a designated area for dramatic play where children can act and role-play freely.
- Participate in Play: Join in dramatic play by taking part in the performances, assuming roles, and encouraging children’s creativity.
- Encourage Storytelling: Encourage children to create their own stories and scenarios and to act them out through dramatic play.
- Support Emotional Expression: Dramatic play is an opportunity for children to explore and express emotions through role-playing and fictional situations.
- Provide Time and Space: Set aside enough time for dramatic play and provide children with a space where they can develop their creative and social skills.
By promoting dramatic play, parents can support the development of imagination, empathy, emotional expression, and social skills in their children.
Social play encourages interaction with peers and the development of social skills such as cooperation, sharing, and empathy.
Parents can foster social play in children by engaging in activities that promote interaction with peers and the development of social skills. Here are some effective strategies that parents can use to develop social play in children:
- Encourage Cooperative Play: Encourage children to engage in activities that require cooperation, such as building projects, group games, and collaborative art activities. This helps children learn to work together and share responsibilities.
- Teach Turn-Taking: Teach children the importance of taking turns and waiting for their chance to participate in games and activities. This helps develop patience and consideration for others.
- Model Positive Social Behaviour: Demonstrate positive social interactions with others, including sharing, taking turns, and showing empathy. Children often learn by observing the behavior of adults around them.
- Arrange Playdates: Organise playdates with other children to provide opportunities for social interaction and the development of friendship skills.
- Provide Guidance: Offer gentle guidance on how to communicate effectively, resolve conflicts, and express emotions in a positive manner during social play.
- Engage in Group Activities: Participate in group activities such as sports, music, drama, or community service to help children learn how to interact with others and work towards common goals.
By implementing these strategies, parents can support the development of social skills such as cooperation, sharing, and empathy in children, fostering positive social play experiences.
Child-Initiated play gives children autonomy to choose their activities and explore their interests independently.
Parents can encourage child-initiated play in their children by providing time and space for independent exploration and creative activities. Here are some ways parents can develop child-initiated play:
- Create a Play-Friendly Environment: Set up a play area at home with a variety of toys, art supplies, and open-ended materials that encourage children to engage in self-directed play.
- Offer Unstructured Time: Allow children to have unstructured time during the day where they can choose their activities and explore their interests independently.
- Participate in Play: Engage in play with your child, allowing them to take the lead and direct the play activities. This can involve imaginative play, building projects, or artistic endeavors.
- Provide Open-Ended Materials: Offer materials that can be used in multiple ways, such as blocks, play dough, art supplies, and natural items like sticks and rocks, to encourage creativity and exploration.
- Support Outdoor Play: Encourage outdoor play, which provides opportunities for child-initiated play in natural environments, fostering imagination and problem-solving skills.
- Reflect on Learning: Discuss and reflect with children on what they have learned through their play experiences, encouraging them to express their thoughts and ideas.
By implementing these strategies, parents can foster child-initiated play, allowing children to develop autonomy, creativity, problem-solving skills, and a love for independent exploration and learning.
Teacher-directed play includes games with rules that support language development, sequencing, turn-taking, sharing resources, speaking, and listening skills. This type of play provides structured learning opportunities while promoting language development and social interaction.
Teachers encourage teacher-directed play by providing structured activities and guidance to help children engage in specific learning experiences. Here are some ways teachers at UNIS Hahoi promote teacher-directed play:
- Lesson Planning: Design lesson plans that include activities and materials to support specific learning objectives, such as literacy, numeracy, or science concepts.
- Guided Activities: Lead children through activities that focus on specific skills or content, providing instruction and support as they engage in the play.
- Learning Spaces: Set up learning spaces with themed activities and materials that encourage children to explore and learn about a particular topic or subject.
- Direct Instruction: Provide direct instruction and guidance to help children understand the goals and expectations of the play activity.
- Scaffolding: Offer scaffolding support to help children build on their existing knowledge and skills, guiding them through the play process to achieve specific learning outcomes.
- Assessment: Use teacher-directed play as an opportunity to assess children’s understanding and progress in specific areas of learning.
By incorporating these strategies, teachers can effectively promote teacher-directed play, guiding children through purposeful learning experiences that support their development and academic growth.
In the journey of nurturing and shaping young minds, understanding the diverse types of play in child development becomes a valuable asset. Play serves as the canvas upon which children explore their creativity, sharpen their social skills, and build the foundation for lifelong learning.
At each stage of their development, children acquire new skills and knowledge that contribute to their overall growth. UNIS Hanoi’s PYP programme encourages children to learn through play, which helps to foster their natural curiosity and inquiry. To learn more about our PYP programme, please visit our website.
- UNIS Hanoi is ever-evolving, but one thing that remains is our passion to nurture and equip students to be agents of change for a better world.
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