Translanguaging in the Classroom: Its Advantages, Challenges, and How to Use It

Traditional monolingual teaching methods are being challenged in today’s classrooms, where diverse linguistic backgrounds are increasingly common. Translanguaging in the classroom, a practice that embraces multiple languages for learning has emerged as a promising alternative.

This article delves into the potential of translanguaging, exploring its advantages in fostering deeper understanding and engagement while acknowledging the challenges it presents for teachers and students alike. Let’s get started!

What is Translanguaging in the Classroom?

Translanguaging in the Classroom is an approach that leverages multilingual students’ entire linguistic repertoire for learning. This term was initially pointed out by Cenoz & Gorter in 2021. This method recognises their ability to seamlessly switch between languages (like Vietnamese and English) to grasp concepts, explain ideas, or deepen understanding.

By valuing and actively encouraging this natural practice, teachers empower students to utilise their full potential, fostering deeper engagement and academic success.

Advantages and Challenges of Translanguaging in the Classroom

While the advantages of translanguaging are promising, it’s crucial to acknowledge its challenges. Let’s explore the advantages and disadvantages of translanguaging.

Advantages of Translanguaging in the Classroom

Here are 7 advantages that can unlock the full potential of your multilingual learners:

  • Boosting the Weaker Language: Students utilise their most robust language to explain challenging concepts in their weaker language, promoting deeper understanding and confidence.
  • Developing Metaliteracy: By comparing structures and translating between languages, students gain self-awareness of language as a system. They analyse word formation, grammar rules, and vocabulary connections, enhancing their language skills.
  • Celebrating Linguistic Diversity: Translanguaging empowers minority language speakers, valuing their linguistic resources. It fosters a positive classroom environment where diverse languages are seen as assets, not barriers.
  • Deeper Subject Understanding: Students can access different explanations and perspectives across languages, enriching their comprehension of complex topics.
  • Literacy & Oral Communication Skills: Translanguaging promotes reading and writing fluency in both languages. Students practice expressing themselves effectively and translating thoughts and arguments coherently.
  • Engaging Parents & Community: Their involvement grows when parents can access and contribute to schoolwork in their language. Translanguaging bridges the gap, fostering collaboration and creating a more inclusive learning environment.
  • Expanding Resource Access: By leveraging multilingualism, teachers and students can utilise a broader range of materials from multiple languages.

By embracing translanguaging, we empower students to unlock their full potential, celebrating diversity while fostering deeper learning for all.

Challenges of Translanguaging in the Classroom

While translanguaging offers numerous benefits for multilingual learners, it’s essential to acknowledge potential challenges that require careful consideration for effective implementation.

  • Limited Resources: Not all information or concepts have readily available translations, especially in niche fields or newly emerging disciplines. Reliant solely on translanguaging could restrict access to diverse knowledge sources.
  • Preparation is key: Effective translanguaging requires careful planning and teacher expertise to navigate multiple languages seamlessly, ensuring they facilitate learning without muddling language acquisition.
  • Minority language concerns: Some educators express concern that widespread translanguaging could undermine the development of minority languages within the classroom, especially when they differ significantly from the dominant language.

Ultimately, the success of translanguaging hinges on finding a balanced approach that fosters language development while acknowledging its complexities.

Differences between Translanguaging and Code Switching

While code-switching and translanguaging involve using elements from multiple languages, they differ critically.

Code-switching, often seen as “borrowing” from one language to communicate with someone else who shares that language, focuses on the act of switching itself. Translanguaging, sometimes called “responsible code-switching,” goes beyond the act, emphasising the speaker’s entire linguistic repertoire and the strategic use of all their language skills to construct meaning, regardless of traditional language boundaries.

Differences between Translanguaging and Code Switching

This broader perspective extends to educational practices that leverage multilingualism, encouraging students to draw on their native language skills for deeper understanding and expression.

How to Use Translanguaging in the Classroom

From understanding the translanguage definition, and the “why” of translanguaging, let’s explore the practical “how” to implement this powerful tool in your classroom with clear translanguaging examples.

Know Your Students’ Language Backgrounds

Conduct surveys, informal interviews, or language assessments to understand your students’ languages and proficiency levels.

Example: Group students with similar home languages for collaborative projects, encouraging them to leverage their shared linguistic resources.

Encourage Code-Switching

Allow students to seamlessly switch between languages to express themselves more effectively or clarify specific ideas.

Example: During a debate, permit students to code-switch when struggling to articulate a point in the target language, providing space for meaningful participation.

Adjust the Way You Address Translanguaging

Acknowledge its value instead of viewing it as a disruption. Explain its purpose and benefits to students, creating a positive and accepting environment.

Example: Start by allowing students to briefly translate complex concepts for each other in their home languages, gradually scaffolding them towards independent understanding.

Encourage Students to Tell About Their Culture/Daily Findings

Provide opportunities for students to share their experiences, cultural celebrations, or daily discoveries in their home languages.

Example: Organise a “show and tell” session where students bring objects from home and share their significance in their native and target languages, encouraging others to ask questions in either language.

Encourage Students to Label Items

Involve students in labelling classroom objects, furniture, and learning materials in their home and target languages.

Example: Create a multilingual word wall where students can add vocabulary cards with definitions in their home languages alongside the target language terms.

Encourage Students to Label Items

Promote Students to Use Their Native Language

Acknowledge the value of their home languages by incorporating them into activities. Students can explain cultural practices, translate proverbs, or share folk stories in their native tongue.

Example: During a unit on storytelling, invite students to share traditional tales from their cultures in their native languages, followed by a collaborative translation and performance.

Allow Students to Work in Small Groups

Encourage peer-to-peer learning, where students can explain concepts, clarify doubts, and translate for each other in their preferred languages.

Example: During science experiments, assign roles where students explain procedures or observations in their native language, with others translating or clarifying in the target language.

Promote Translanguaging Through Writing

Allow students to draft initial responses or brainstorm ideas in their home languages before translating them into the target language.

Example: Have students write journal entries about a historical event, first summarising essential information in their home language, then expanding it in the target language with additional details and reflections.

Encourage Students to Read Bilingual Books

Provide access to books with parallel translations in students’ home languages and the target language.

Example: Dedicate time for “buddy reading,” where students pair up, one reading in their home language and the other in the target language, fostering collaboration and comprehension.

Apply Technology and Online Translation Tools

Use language learning apps, online translation tools, and multimedia resources supporting multiple languages.

Example: During a research project, allow students to use online translation tools to access information in different languages, encouraging them to critically analyse and compare the translated content.

FAQs about Translanguaging in the Classroom

After exploring some examples of translanguaging in the classroom, now, let’s address some common questions about putting translanguaging into practice:

FAQs about Translanguaging in the Classroom

How Translanguaging differs from Translation?

Translation aims for accurate, one-way meaning transfer between specific languages. Meanwhile, translanguaging mixes languages freely, like a playground. It’s about using all your languages together, not just converting between them.

How can translanguaging be used to promote cross-cultural understanding and appreciation among students?

By encouraging students to weave their diverse languages and cultural references into communication, translanguaging breaks down language barriers. It fosters collaboration, builds inclusive learning environments, and allows students to see their identities and backgrounds valued. The act of understanding and appreciating classmates’ multilingual expression opens doors to richer cultural exchange and a deeper appreciation of different perspectives.

What are some best practices for collaborating with multilingual families to support translanguaging in the home and school environment?

Embrace all languages as valuable tools, not obstacles. Partner with families, valuing their expertise and encouraging home language use. Create safe spaces for students to translanguage, building on their strengths. Design learning activities that leverage the richness of multilingualism, fostering collaboration and shared understanding. Celebrate and learn from each other’s diverse linguistic landscapes, promoting inclusivity and joy. Remember, translanguaging is a journey, not a destination – walk it together!

Foster a Positive Translanguaging Environment with UNIS Hanoi

In conclusion, while requiring thoughtful implementation, translanguaging offers many advantages for educators and students alike. By embracing multilingualism, you unlock deeper understanding, boost learner confidence, and cultivate a vibrant classroom community.

At UNIS Hanoi, we believe that language is not a barrier, but a bridge to understanding and connection. By fostering a positive translanguaging environment, we empower our students to not only excel academically but also embrace their cultural heritage and become confident communicators in an increasingly multilingual world.

Ready to see it in action? Join us for a school tour and discover how we harness the power of every language spoken within our walls. Let’s unlock the full potential of each learner together

Reference source:

  • Thomas, E. M., SiĆ“n, C. G., Jones. B., Dafydd, M., Lloyd-Williams, S. W., Tomos, Rh., Lowri Jones, L. M., Jones, D., Maelor, G., Evans, Rh. a Caulfield, G. (2022). Translanguaging: A quick reference guide for educators. Retrieved from the Welsh Government:

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UNIS Communication Team
UNIS Communication Team
UNIS Hanoi is ever-evolving, but one thing that remains is our passion to nurture and equip students to be agents of change for a better world.
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